Published on September 8th, 2021
Gas turbines have become a widespread, trustworthy, and important device in transportation, power generation, and other fields.
The gas turbine services utilize an internal combustion engine that can burn various fuels and offers great functional versatility. The length of the gas turbines can be anything from 1 to 10 meters.
These devices come in various forms to fulfill various power requirements from jets, driving tanks, and helicopters to industrial power utilization and power generation services.
The Important Components Of An Efficient Gas Turbine
Below-mentioned is the essential parts of an efficient gas engine:
- Compressor – In the case of early gas turbines, inexpensive and simple centrifugal compressors were used. But, these compressors were unable to offer compatibility to the latest axial-flow compressors as they were limited to only low-pressure ratios. Therefore, nowadays, only small industrial plants use the centrifugal compressor. And, in larger plants axial-flow compressor is used which has the exact opposite features of a reaction turbine.
- Inlet – The inlet portion of the turbine undergoes unrestricted and clean airflow to the engine. This happens by the prevention of erosion, FOD or foreign object damage, and corrosion. This is why while designing the inlet, consideration of various atmospheric conditions are made, like industrial pollution, temperature, foreign objects, salt, dust, etc. This inlet duct is generally produced and designed as a separate system.
- Turbine – This component mainly depends on the reaction and expansion principle of the hot gas. This hot gas is expanded via up to eight steps utilizing one or multiple turbines. Highly functional aircraft engines are used in the turbines to employ various spools. One of the latest huge aircraft-engine operates with an entire pressure ratio of 30.5:1.
In the case of a high-pressure compressor, the speed of rotation is 9,860 revolutions per minute. And, in the case of a low-pressure compressor, the speed of rotation is 3,600 revolutions per minute.
- Combustion chamber – After leaving the compressor, the air must be slowed down. Then this air is divided into two different streams. Among these two, the smaller one gets its energy from the burning of fuel in the central region. On the other hand, the larger stream is energized into the combustion chamber via holes along with a combustion liner. This process makes sure that the overall temperature of the turbine remains perfect for the inlet portion.
- Diffuser – The function of the diffuser is to support the seals and the rear bearings of the compressor. It also provides structural support to the engine and undergoes mounting for the nozzles.
- Start-up and control – The speed of a gas turbine engine must be kept constant irrespective of its electrical load. However, the decrease of electric load can be made compatible with the burning of less amount of fuel. Moreover, this would lower the temperature of exiting gas and the required enthalpy drop would be available.
- Some other design components – There are various other components of a modern gas turbine. One of the most useful among these is multi spool unit and also the thrust bearings. These components are responsible for absorbing the axial forces.
The Functioning Method Followed By The Gas Turbine
For the generation of electricity, the gas turbine generally heats a mix of fuel and air at extremely high temperatures. This results in the spinning of the turbine blades.
After that, via the help of these spinning blades, the gas turbine drives the electricity generator that undergoes the conversion of energy into electricity.
Both gas turbines and steam turbines can be combined for utilization in a combined-cycle power plant. This would ensure the generation of extremely efficient power.
However, how the gas turbine produces electricity can be described as follows:
- Fuel-air mixture burns – The air is compressed by the gas engine and is combined with fuel which is then ignited at a very high temperature, producing hot gas.
- Blades’ rotation by hot gas – The hot mixture of fuel and air moves through the blades of the rotator, resulting in the quick spinning of the blades.
- Rotation of drive shaft – Due to the fast-paced spinning of the rotator blades, the rotation of the drive shaft also begins.
- The generator gets powered – The rod inside the generator is connected to the spinning turbine. This rod turns a huge magnet associated with a copper wired coil for powering the generator.
- Formation of a strong magnetic field – The magnets of the fast-revolving generator create a strong magnetic field. This field lines up all the electrons surrounding the copper coils and results in the movement of the electrons to create electricity.
The gas turbines are installed widely in various power plants that are fueled with natural gas. These machines are complex. By installing a recuperator the efficiency of these turbines can be boosted.